Habit: fast growing with a narrow conical shape and horizontal branches with pendulous branchlets. The bark is dark gray-brown, thick and fissured with large plates. Shiny yellow-green to blue green leaves are needle like and 1 in (2.5 cm) long singularly arranged in two irregular rows and very fragrant. Male cones are oblong, red to yellow, female cones red both occurring near branch ends. Cones are characteristic having thin scales and three pronged bracts reaching beyond scales.
Ecology: found in large pure stands in moist to dry open forests in the Pacific Northwest from British Columbia to California at elevations from near sea level along the coast to above 5000 ft (1524 m) in the Cascades.
Growing Conditions: full sun in moist well-drained soil
State tree of Oregon. Douglas-fir seeds are an extremely important food source for small mammals and a variety of birds.